Handling References... Both Good and Bad

Everything is ready to go - a polished resume heavy with the latest technology buzzwords and outstanding accomplishments, a carefully written cover letter outlining why any company should give you a corner office, interviewing skills that will absolutely guarantee success... everything you need to have offers pouring in.

Wrong. You didn't mention great references.

While a well thought out resume and interviewing skills are critical to your success, mediocre references can turn a potential offer into a lost opportunity. Employers take references seriously, and job seekers often ignore or downplay their importance. Your references can make or break the deal.

My Company Doesn't Give Out References

We frequently hear: "My employer won't give me a bad reference because of their 'dates and titles only' policy." These policies do exist, but that doesn't mean that negative references are not a concern. Suspicious, abbreviated ... or even indifferent... references are given out daily.

A bad reference can be very subtle.

A manager who shows hesitancy to answer questions directly... or doesn't return phone calls after three or four tries... or hits it head on with comments we have heard like: "I'll have to pass on her, but you may want to check her other references very carefully", or worse "He's still in software engineering? I'm surprised, good for him," can seriously jeopardize your credibility as a viable candidate.

You would be shocked at how many negative references are actually passed to potential employers everyday. Some investigative firms (that perform background checks for employers) claim that the percentage of mediocre to bad references is as high as 58%. We see numbers in the 20% range, averaged over the past 10 years.

Even presentation can make a decent reference come out poorly.

Some managers have a personality that is just not enthusiastic, animated or dynamic, and a high energy manager interprets their low energy responses as a veiled bad reference. They translate the low energy reference (based on presentation, not content) as a vote of no enthusiasm for the candidate.

During the '90s a spate of lawsuits caused employers to clam up.

In 1997, a lawsuit filed against Allstate Insurance brought national attention to this issue.

The negligent referral lawsuit was settled before going to trial, but the judge ruled that Allstate could be sued for punitive damages because they concealed the violent nature of a former employee. In this case, wrongdoing allegedly occurred when Allstate wrote a letter of recommendation explaining that the employee was downsized as part of a corporate restructuring. He was actually fired for carrying a handgun at work.

Fireman's Fund Insurance said it relied on the recommendation from Allstate when making a decision to hire the candidate. The employee shot five co-workers in the cafeteria, killing three of them. A survivor of the shooting and the families of those who were killed filed the suit against Allstate Insurance.

Since that incident, 37 states have passed laws that protect employers by granting them immunity from civil liability for truthful, good faith references. Though the laws vary by state, the statutes specify that the employer will be presumed to be acting in good faith, unless the employee can prove that the reference was knowingly false, deliberately misleading, malicious or in violation of civil rights laws.

It is very difficult to substaniate that a manager knowingly provided a unfair or vindictive reference, because most references are done on the phone.

If you were fired for cause (such as theft, fraud, sexual harassment or assault on another employee) it has to be disclosed. An employer cannot conceal this type of information due to liability issues.

On the other hand, "negligent hiring" is a failure by the new employer to adequately check references. Employers can be held liable for not thoroughly checking reference information. It is important to obtain adequate background data to ensure that the new employee does not repeat a negative past behavior pattern, and create problems on the job (or endanger co-workers).

So what can you do to prevent a bad reference? Ashton Search Group has compiled a list of the most important things to consider when selecting references, including a quick checklist to make sure that you don't get blindsided:

Select Your References Diligently

Who you choose to provide as a reference is important, so your references need to be credible. While the most influential reference is usually your current (or most recent) manager, you can also provide others that can describe your competency based on past performance. A reference older than five years should be avoided, because it is likely that your skill set and responsibilites have changed significantly.

Ashton Search Group recommends that references consist of three or more reliable "business" colleagues who can evaluate your technical skills, performance on the job, and overall contributions. They can include managers, clients, customers, vendors, peers, project team members -- and even non-technical employees that can explain how you have contributed to another non-related area (like sales) in meeting their goals. (Tip: if you're working with subcontractors, ask one of their people, who can attest to your technical skills from a different perspective, to act as a reference)

Don't bother with a generic letter of recommendation. Seriously. Future employers do not want to read letters written to "whom it may concern." Employers want to be able to communicate directly with people who can speak authoritatively about your strengths and weakness, and suitability for their position. Also, these letters don't have much credibility, because anyone who would write a general letter for you would likely say only good things.

Don't list names of your references on your resume. Provide references only when a potential employer asks for them, which normally indicates they are proceeding toward an offer. Have a list prepared.

Eliminate Surprises

Select individuals who have known you for a significant period of time (at least a year) and are in a position to discuss your skills and abilities, especially as they apply to the position you want.

Before you pass their name on, it's a good idea to talk to your references. Provide them with a copy of your current resume, and make sure that they are up-to-date on what you've done (and any noteworthy achievements that they may have forgotten). It may seem awkward, but ask them up front for their unvarished perception of your accomplishments, strengths, and weaknesses. This is an important "tweak" that will provide enhanced results.

If you really want to determine the quality of your references - what they are saying and how well they're saying it - you can have a third party check them. Many companies don't check references themselves - they either hire a reference checking company, or ask their recruiter to check them.

If you are consistently coming in second or third after a very solid interview, and you suspect it may be one of your references, then you owe it to yourself to find out what people are saying. Talk to them yourself, or ask your recruiter to do it for you (an alternative that offers objectivity).

It's a good idea to know what your references are saying (or how poorly they're expressing it). It may be time to revise and fine tune your reference list.

Many hiring managers will complete the "sanitized" reference, and then ask... "Hey, off the record, just between us.., is Richard a good guy? Would you hire him again? In your opinion, why does he want to leave your company? Anything I should know that we haven't discussed? Is he a real contributor? Do others trust his judgement?" Often times, more information is generated when the reference is over, and the two managers are talking as peers. Off the record translates to "OK, now give me the real scoop as you see it".

What About a Bad Reference?

If you did have a difficult, contentious, highly opinionated or bad manager, it's best to prepare for the possibility that he or she will be contacted.

A manager can provide negative information if he or she can back it up with employee performance reviews, performance memos or "qualified" personal opinion (supported by your personnel record), as long as it's not false, deliberately misleading or malicious. References are a personal opinion about you.

Let's face it, not everyone thinks you're a star. Very few engineers or engineering managers can expect a great review from everybody they ever worked with. With managers it is even more pronounced. Your style (or management decisions) may not be in sync with a senior manager's party line... and even if they were good decisions, they can be construed as inadequate, incompetent, politically inept or short sighted. The world as they see it (and how everyone else should have seen it).

What do you do?

If you are currently employed, one option is to indicate to companies that you are looking confidentially. Request that your current employer not be contacted until an offer is forthcoming - confidential job searches are common. You are just postponing the bad reference.

However, in other cases, you have only a few choices:

  • Sit down with the manager and attempt to come to an reasonable agreement regarding what information will be provided (not always possible, but worth a try). Negotiate your reference ahead of time. Agree on levels of disclosure.
  • Ask for clarification on areas of weakness, and sign up for training to fix it. If there's no denying the complaint is relevant, you can now counter with an honest response... that you are working on improving that specific area.
  • Your only other option is to do nothing, and hope that your other references are so strong that they may outweigh the one expected negative reference. This is a risky strategy -- that usually fails.

Here's a checklist of things to consider when preparing your list of references:

  • Choose carefully. Try for 3-5 business references that include your current manager, and some other individuals who can provide a good technical evaluation of your abilities from a more senior perspective. Never use your pastor, frat brothers, relatives, a personal friend, or a co-worker from 1992 - they are not credible references. Fluff references are a red flag to an employer, and indicate that it may be difficult to get technical and character attestations about you.
  • Provide contacts that have worked with you recently. Peers (fair) and supervisors (much better) make good references. An outstanding reference would be a direct manager at your current company... the person that does your performance review.
  • Verify contact information and update reference's title, especially with older references. Don't let your potential new boss call a disconnected number.
  • Call the HR department and ask them to explain their corporate policy on providing external references.
  • Make copies of your past performance evaluations - a few good evaluations are a great thing to have - in case your performance or contributions are questioned. They will normally balance a bad reference.

Experienced hiring managers and HR professionals will weigh the one lukewarm (or bad) reference against your other positive references, and how you interviewed. They may ask you to explain a bad reference, and convince them that it is erroneous, or based on a personality conflict. They understand this happens. Make your response truthful, brief and accurate.

However, why put them in that position? Your best option is to eliminate the possibility of a negative or questionable reference... make the hiring manager's decision easier, and stand out from your competition.

Take references seriously, and make reference selection an important part of your overall search planning.


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SOFTWARE ENGINEERING JOBS: Open systems, UNIX, AIX, Linux, Solaris, IRIX, HP-UX, Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows NT, APIs, real-time embedded software, embedded diagnostic software, device drivers, DLLs, software packaging and deployment, definition, requirements analysis and integration, middleware, firmware, DOS, RTOS, pSOS, VRTX, VxWorks, Novell, Win32, CORBA, OOA, OOD, OOP, DII COE, RISC, CISC, Oracle, SQL, UNIX Shell scripting, real-time, software analysis, architecture, OMT, CASE Tools (Rational Rose or Cayenne Object Team), Object-to-Relation concepts, modeling methodologies and tools, client/server architecture, Simulation Based Design (SBD), CGI and web-based development, multithreaded applications, rapid software prototyping, Object Modeling Technique (OMT/Rumbaugh), Object Class Libraries, Object Frameworks, shrink wrap software, IM, video, fault tolerant, Knowledge Based Systems (KBS), rapid application development, encryption, decryption, packet switched, software analysis, SourceForge, data and network security, defense, simulation, graphics, SEI/CMM Level 4 or 5 Software Processes, Clearquest, Client Server Applications, intelligence, Unicode compliance, multilingual search, normalization, electronic warfare, C4ISR, C4I, SQL Server, MAPI, SOAP, IPCs, ATL, ASP, VBScript, JavaScript, XML, ADO Sockets, I/O, TCP/IP, UDP/IP, .NET Windows, ATL, ASP, VBScript, relational databases, OOP client/server environment, PowerBuilder, WSDL, ASP .Net, Signal Processing, Microsoft Speech Application SDK, SALT, ADO.NET, JScript, C#, XML/XSLT, streaming codecs, Rtsp, multicast, Unicast, DVB, Routers, 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11a, wireless, Linux Kernel, Rational CASE tool suite, UML, Mercury QuickTest, WinRunner, TestDirector, OOP, automated test scripts, VS.Net, WebSphere IDEs, ClearCase, InfoSec and computer forensics, ClearQuest, Robot. J2EE, SDLC guideline, distributed client-server architectures, radar, IPSec, TLS/SSL, SSH, PGP, network virtualization, MIL-STD 498, ColdFusion MX, VCODEX/Vcdiff, dgwin, SourceSafe, JBuilder, UI/HCI, monolithic kernel, scalable web-based systems, XML Schema, SNMP, CLI/SSH. TCL/EXPECT, HTTPS, NDIS, LDAP, DirectX 8/9, OpenGL. W3C, Apache, IIS, ARM processors, Cryptography, real-time digital signal processing software, MRCP protocols, N-Tiered architectures, Artificial Intelligence, FDA QSR, multithreaded applications, automation algorithms, surface surveillance software, software defined radio, JTRS Cluster 5

SOFTWARE LANGUAGES: C, C++, XML, UML, Ada, Visual C++, Visual Basic, Visual C++, Assembly 80x86, 680x0, JAVA, JavaScript, php, J2EE, JSP, Servlets, JavaBeans, AWT, Swing, JDBC, Ada, Assembler, PLM, C++ with MFC, Ada/VHDL, 80386 Assembly, SQL, PL/SQL, Transact-SQL, VC++ (6.0), MFC, DHTML, Perl, C++/STL, S-Plus, IA-32 assembler, Java/J2EE, ActiveX, Metrowerks, C/Java/Perl/VB, JDBC, EJB entity beans, embedded SQL, UNICODE, QNX, Matlab, SML, Ptolemy, visualSTATE/ST, embedded software JVMs, C programming using pSOS or VxWorks

ELECTRICAL & HARDWARE ENGINEERING JOBS: DSP, electromagnetic, IC hardware, Motorola HC08, Microchip PIC, Intel 8051, Centrino, acoustic, RF signal analysis, IR signal analysis, BlueTooth, display systems, avionics, MIL-STD-1553B data bus, space surveillance, enhanced Single Board Computer (eSBC), HOL (Ada/C), Command, Telemetry & Control Unit (CTCU), set-top boxes, robotics, FPGA, ASIC, radar/lidar signal processing, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), packaging, charge-coupled devices (CCD), EDACS, active-pixel sensors, A/D, analog/digital converters, digital, RF transceivers, signal-processing ASICs, power ASIC, microelectromechanical (MEMs), multi-modal coupling, spatial temporal filtering, noise and clutter modeling, RF deterministic modeling, stochastic analysis, payload, HW/SW partitioning, optical data communication, digital servo system design, EO/IR, tactical reconnaissance, digital video, HDTV, printers, imaging systems, electronic warfare, power supplies, MILSATCOM, analog, computer security, secure interoperability, Embedded Systems Software Development, Motorola 68K/683XX, MPC8XX and PPCXXX, PLD, CPLD, routers, switches, C3I, C4I, C4ISR, WBS, CAIV, EVMS, IMP/IMS, RAID, ATM, HiPPI, WAN, FibreChannel, Gigabit Ethernet, VHDL, VLSI, optical encoders, X-Band Radar, Tempest, AISR, cryptographic modules, FPGA, PLD, VHDL, embedded programming, avionics, algorithms, pulse Doppler Radar, FFT processing, SCSI device programming, clutter range fold-over, factors limiting clutter cancellation, target velocity, range ambiguities, CFAR detection, Countermeasures, survivable network enabled military communications payload, CPLDs, threat mission environments, SSGN, Fire Control, tactical computer interfaces, space and intelligence systems, robotic/UGV, modeling algorithms, JDEP, seeker and sensor, tactical unmanned, image processing, sensor fusion, launch and space systems, IMINT, SIGINT, OSINT, defense, I-Base, MDITDS, AMHS, RCS testing and analysis, switch-mode power electronics, fixed point and mobile wireless data applications, flow transmitters and sensors, high rate laser communications, attack/intrusion detection software, deep-submicron digital and mixed-signal SOI-CMOS, three-dimensionally stacked circuits, SERDES, digital or analog CMOS electrical circuits, full-custom mixed-signal standard cell digital or microwave, CMOS active pixel sensors, pin photodiode arrays, avalanche photodiode arrays, ultra low-power 180-nm fully depleted SOI CMOS circuits, low-noise broad-band focal planes, laser radar, optical remote sensing, DSP algorithms, DC/DC converters, PLDs, power control electronics, board-level electronic design, embedded microcontroller applications, LCD, high speed digital design or RF design, power supply design, communication bus interfaces, electromagnetic compatibility, FPGA development experience (VHDL, Altera or Xilinx), RF and digital design, integration and test, mechanical design for electronic and thermal packaging, control and distribution equipment for 50Hz, 60Hz, 400Hz and DC systems, power control electronics, DC/DC switchmode design, software defined radio, JTRS Cluster 5, TELINT, MASINT, IMINT

RF ENGINEERING JOBS: microwave and milimeter wave, 2.4 GHz to 5.8 GHz, hybrid Satcom terrestrial networks, film bulk acoustic resonators (FBAR), active/passive RF electronics, analyze RF modulation circuits, antenna engineer with apertures and radiators, VLF, Lower L Band, HF, high frequency, VHF, UHF, SHF, EHF, X band, advanced modulation/demod techniques, QAM, QPSK, FSK, DOCSIS, transceiver, MEMS-based RF switches, MMWave, RF SETA, ADS, AWR, SONET, satcom, GPS, TMS, TDMA, LNA, PLL, SA Radar, circuit design/simulation, antenna pattern design measurement, 2 GHz/5 GHz, RFIC, RF IC, system design & development, film bulk acoustic resonators (FBAR), RF MEMS, A/D converters, high-density digital/high-performance RF boards, microwave circuit interconnects, RF packaging, synthesizers, antenna, antenna steering, antenna arrays, IC Antenna Modules, Adaptive Blind Signal Processing, WCDMA, CDMA, 3G, 3.5G, direct sequence spread spectrum, COMINT, RF simulation and modeling, algorithmic frequency hopping, low power spectral density, GSM, DCS 1800, low orbit satellite, UMTS, multi-band MMIC, SDR, software defined radios, RF software, RF firmware, spectrally efficient RF systems, propogation analysis, anti jam, narrowband, SIGINT, wireless, 802.11g, 802.11a, 802.11 a/b, 802.11b, 802.11e, 802.11n, mixed signal, RF encrypted networks, Wi-Fi 802.11abg, EMC/EMI, access points, RFIC, cordless, SE/SI implementation, RF printed circuit layout, DSS, error control coding/simulating algorithms and link modeling, certified module embedder (CME), RF Transmission Systems, numerically controlled oscillators, electromagnetic characterization, waveguides, combiners, remote sensing, scramblers, descramblers, signal transmission equipment, microwave components, subsystems, microwave relay equipment, ferrite microwave components, microwave components, satellite communications equipment, comsat components, satellite delay compensation, satellite launch and guidance systems, CMIP/CMIS, TMN, telemetry tracking, troposcatter, iDEN, RF capacity planning, satellite transmission, digital HR radio/avionics, develops RF system architecture, RF design and GSM optimization, earth stations, space stations, receiver module redesign, Electronic Support Measures (ESM), repeaters, base stations, C3I, C4I, C4ISR, radar, aviation, Multi-Beam Antennas, RF amplifiers, RF multi-frequency feed assemblies, TCM studies, COTM, microwave RF circuits, SATCOM, synthesizers, modulators, receiver front ends, attenuators, up/down-converters, filters, MIC subsystems, RF traffic management and spectrum analysis, ILS/IFF, RF Spectrum Analysis, RF subsystems, antenna sub-system to RF front end, RF emitter, RF power amplifier topologies Class E, Class D, DFx, RF active device circuit design, discrete RF power amplifiers, RF MEMS devices, RF/Analog assemblies, wireless encrypted networking, anti-jamming communications, SINCGARS, lumped-element filters, TDRSS interface definition, RF subsystems - receiver, transmitter and synthesizer chains, EDACS, intermodulation studies, high density digital high-performance RF packaging, radar systems operating at S-band, C-band or X-band, integrated broadband RF Systems on a chip, RF GSM optimization, GPRS, EDGE, 3G technologies, microwave circuit design, 3D electromagnetic design, microwave stripline circuits, RF design/analysis, RF T&M equipment, RF vector modulators, frequency conversion architectures, high dynamic range RF amplifiers, DSP algorithms, satellite TV, broadband access systems, RF test, debug and IC verification, non-linearities and spurious performance, low noise oscillator design, resonator driven oscillators, ADS RF design tools, parasitic extraction, Wireless Design Suite, dBPlanner, Planet, Bluetooth, GSM/GPRS Network, TANO KPI tools, Wizard, SETRAM XP GSM, Schema AFP (Automatic Frequency Planning), Voice over IP packet through GPRS, RF optimization, OSS and BSS platforms, HALT, HASS and Life testing, over-the-air interface protocols, antenna interference, Eagleware design software, digital RF processing, NEXCOM, static DC offset, filter response, compression, third order intermodulation, power amplifier topologies (Class E, Class D), DFx, FMEA, Microwave Office, HPM analytical and test research, RF/microwave and millimeter-wave designs, Quad Band GSM/GPRS, L band, S band, ISM band, IRIG, pHEMT, iHBT, diplexers, GaAs MMIC, wideband LNA, MOCVD epitaxial wafer, dual, tri or quad-band GSM & DCS/PCS handsets, TO-8, connectorized, surface mount packages, telemetry, voltage variable attenuators, GaAs MMIC, 2G/2.5G, WLAN and CATV, VSAT, MMIC MESFET RF and control chips, circulators and isolators for GSM, PCS and UMTS 3G base station, RF software defined radio, JTRS Cluster 5, UMTS, 4G, LTE, WiMAX

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING JOBS: solid modeling, high precision assemblies, large machined structural weldments, geometric tolerancing, feature control, FEA, FMECA, AutoCAD, Catia, Unigraphics, Pro/E, static and fatigue structural analyses, finite element, hybrid assembly processes, space systems design, fabrication, electronic packaging, sensors, pneumatics, non-destructive testing, mechanics, plastics, hydraulics, piping, sheet metal structures, material finishes, fabricated metal components and mechanisms, rapid prototyping, defense, SolidWorks, ProEngineer, root cause analysis, ceramics, automated machines, fixtures, jigs, tooling, passive RF assemblies, electromechanical devices, mechanisms, thermal systems, fluid dynamics, metal fabrication design, Mentor Graphics, PADS, CATIA V5, SDRC IDEAS, high density rigid-flex PWBs, Inventor, MasterCam, fluid power, structural design, weldments, heat treating, shafts, enclosure design, plastic parts design, injection molding, communications, combat systems, battlefield digitization, electro-optics, power conversion, digital imaging, flight safety, hydraulic and temperature measuring devices, avionics, HVAC design, heat load analysis, psychrometrics, valves, pumps, piping, heat exchangers, pneumatic envelopes, castings, FMEAs and design reviews, product engineering, high volume production, rapid prototyping, polymers, elastomers, ANSYS, electromechanical interfaces, sheetmetal design, mechanisums, solenoids, actuators, small motor driven devices, rigid and soft plastic material molded parts, machined parts, adhesive systems, cyanoacrylates, epoxies, fabricated metal components, tooling and fixtures, turbines, turbomachinery, renewable energy, green energy, solar energy, wind energy, AP RP560, P&ID development, prototype chassis subassemblies, high volume manufacturing, aluminum die cast parts, high volume consumer products, motherboards, hard drives/DVD and chassis, consumer electronics packaging, high volume manufacturing materials, Mechanical Desktop, acoustic fatigue, Lean Engineering (model based definition, determinant assembly), Unigraphics V16, embedded controls, Matlab/Simulink/Real-time Workshop, dSPACE, xPCtarget, dynamics modeling, Mechatronics, CFD, I-deas, solids modeling, design for six sigma, plastics forming, molding, stampings, fastening, ISO-9001/ISO-9000, Pro/E, Pro-Intralink, Unigraphics 2-D and 3-D, CATIA, IGES, DXF, DWG, STL, Green Belt certification, xPCtarget, system dynamics modeling, kinematics, thermodynamics

SYSTEM ENGINEERING & PROGRAM MANAGEMENT JOBS: space based IR systems, digital video, MPEG4, Digital and Demand services, systems modeling and analysis, statistics/error modeling, tactical communications, internetworking, pharmaceutical, IQ, OQ, PQ and PV validation protocols, Regulatory Affairs, digital systems architecture, Electromagnetic Environmental Effects (E3), survivability, GUI application development and DLL creation, exploitation algorithms, commissioning, COMINT, PROFORMA, FISINT broadband, SCADA, control systems integration, hyper spectral radiometry, multi or hyperultraspecial image processing and analysis, remote sensing systems, intelligence, mission management, risk mitigation plans, radar AMTI/GMTI/SAR image formation, electronic warfare including SIGINT, ELINT, design trades/analysis, flowing down system requirements, configuration management of hardware/software, distributed processing, data warehousing, task analysis/definition and resource allocation, system vulnerabilities, mission management, configuration/data management (CM/DM), algorithms, CAIV, simulation and modeling tools, ASIC and advanced packaging

NETWORK ENGINEERING JOBS: Netware 5.1 & 6, NT 4 & Windows 2000 Servers, TCP/IP, wireless, 802.11g, 802.11a/b, Xyplex, SIMPACT, HDLC, UDP, SNMP, WAN, encrypted, encryption, security, ethernet, sockets, giga ethernet, T1, T3, Firewall, Router, DSLAM, ATM, MPLS, Frame Relay, SONET, TDM, IP, ATM, Cisco, Promina, operational and performance requirements, OPNET or NS2, HTTP, IPX/SPX, 3G, UMTS, WAP, VoIP, GSM, UMTS, GPRS, TDMA, 802.11b

QUALITY ASSURANCE ENGINEERING JOBS: Black-box and white-box testing, QA Manager, Silk, SQA Robot, Winrunner, Test Director, QA Partner, Rational Visual Test, SQA Test Log Viewer, SQA Comparators, black belt, Six Sigma, ISO9001

CLEARANCES: Secret, Top Secret, Top Secret SCI, Top Secret EBI, Top Secret Poly, TS/EBI, TS/SBI, TS/SCI, SCI accesses, ISSA Lifestyle Poly, Top Secret SSBI, Top Secret CISP, Top Secret SAP, TS/SSBI, Top secret SCI full scope polygraph, DOE L, DOE Q, IRS-MBI, NATO Secret, DOJ NACI

DEGREES: BSEE, BS Electrical Engineering, B.S.E.E., MSEE, MS Electrical Engineering, M.S.E.E., PhD, Ph.D., D.Sc.,BS Computer Science, BSCS, B.S.C.S., BS Computer Engineering, BSCE, BS Mechanical Engineering, BSME, B.S.M.E., BS Physics, BS Math, MBA, M.B.A., BS Aeronautical Engineering, BS Materials, BS Biomedical, MSEE, MSCS, MS Mechanical Engineering